Murder is the leading cause of death among pregnant women.(10) It is not unusual for a pregnancy to be wanted by the woman but unwanted by the man.
Forced Abortion Part III>
Violence Can Lead to Murder
Violence Can Escalate to Murder if Women Don’t Abort
Murder is the leading cause of death among pregnant women.(10)
It is not unusual for a pregnancy to be wanted by the woman but unwanted by the man.
He may not want the long-term costs of supporting a child, the loss of his “freedom” or being tied down with parental responsibilities, or a birth that might expose an affair, a rape, or the sexual abuse of a minor. Whatever the reason, some men will become increasingly pressuring, abusive, and violent until they get their way: a dead baby, even if it also requires killing the mother.
If so, the woman can feel tremendous, often life-threatening, pressure to abort.
Life-Threatening Pressure to Abort
Pregnancy places women at higher risk of being attacked.(9) Women understand that threats of violence are real. Preventing domestic violence is their top concern.(11) According to one study of battered women, the target of battery during pregnancy shifted to their abdomens.(18) The leading cause of death among pregnant women is homicide (10) and in many cases it is known that the violence happened solely to prevent birth.(19)
NOTE: Some of the cases below contain graphic descriptions of violence.
Teens Who Refuse to Abort Have Been Murdered
Man Stabs 15-Year-Old Girl Who Refused Abortion, Frozen Body Found at Rest Stop
The frozen body of Daphne Sulk, a pregnant 15-year-old girl, was discovered at a Wyoming rest stop. She had been stabbed multiple times. Kevin Robinson, 38, was sentenced to life in prison for killing her. Prosecutors said that Robinson had gotten Daphne pregnant and that he killed her for refusing to abort.
Man Charged with Shooting Teen in Head After She Refuses Abortion
Tanika Rachelle Fox, 17, was shot in the head in her apartment in Greensboro, NC. Her boyfriend, 21-year-old Shawn Kristopher Holliman, was sentenced to life without parole for her murder. Police said he killed Tanika because she refused to have an abortion and he didn’t want to pay child support.
Teen Charged with Shooting Pregnant Girlfriend; Sister Finds Her Half-Conscious on Park Bench
In New York, 18-year-old Kalisha Bosier was shot in the head just two weeks before she was due to deliver her baby, allegedly by her boyfriend, Warren Teasley, 19. Kalisha’s sister found her slumped on a park bench, bleeding and half-conscious. Kalisha and her unborn daughter died at the hospital.
16-Year-Old Girl Killed Because Boyfriend Thought She Was Pregnant and Didn’t Want Baby
In Georgia, Matthew Wiedeman and another teen stabbed and beat Wiedeman’s girlfriend, Stephanie Burnett, to death. Police said Wiedeman, who pleaded guilty, believed Stephanie was pregnant and he didn’t want her to have the baby. An autopsy showed she was not pregnant.
Pregnant 4th Grader Killed by Her Molester
In Texas, Shakeisha Lloyd, a 10-year-old girl, had just finished fourth grade when she was killed by a man who had been molesting her. Police said Edward LaGrone entered the home of Shakeisha’s family and shot and killed her and two other women there. Shakeisha was 17 weeks pregnant and her mother had notified police that LaGrone had assaulted her. Police said LaGrone had offered to pay for Shakeisha to have an abortion and he wanted to stop the family from filing charges against him. He was sentenced to death for the murders.
Pregnant 15-Year-Old Rape Victim Killed and Burned
Shannon Meschack of Dallas, TX, was arrested for killing 15-year-old Teshibra Bell and attempting to burn her body. Teshibra’s family said Meschack, who was more than 10 years older than Teshibra, didn’t want her to have the baby. Teshibra’s unborn baby also died in the attack, but Meschack was not charged for the baby’s death because the state’s unborn victims law was not yet in effect.
Pregnant 15-Year-Old Shot to Death on School Bus -Boyfriend Charged
In Missouri, a pregnant 15-year-old girl, Kyunia Taylor, was shot to death on a school bus. Police said 29-year-old Mark Boyd hired Malic J. Nettles, 20, to kill Kyunia because he already had two children and didn’t want a third. Nettles allegedly boarded the school bus and opened fire, killing Kyunia and wounding the bus driver. Boyd was charged with murder for the deaths of Kyunia and her unborn baby.
16-Year-Old Taken to Deserted Field, Shot in Head, Left in Ditch. Boyfriend Charged
Trevor Wayne Benson and Kelly D. McCarney of Oklahoma were charged in the murder of Benson’s girlfriend, Vanessa Youngbear, 16, who was seven months pregnant. Police said that the two men took Vanessa, who had asked Benson to take a paternity test, to a deserted field and shot her in the head, leaving her body in a ditch. Benson and McCarney could be charged with murder for the unborn child’s death under Oklahoma law.
15-Year-Old Pregnant Girl Jammed with Sticks, Beaten, Crushed with 30 Lb. Boulder
Amanda Lynn Hanson, a Colorado Springs girl, was 15 weeks pregnant when she was killed by her 21-year-old boyfriend. Michael Baldwin confessed to luring her to a secluded area and assaulting her with sticks and a boulder. Police said Baldwin jammed a branch down Amanda’s throat and jammed sticks into her other body cavities, then beat her and crushed her skull with a 30-pound boulder. Baldwin pleaded guilty to first-degree murder and was sentenced to life in prison under a plea bargain that allowed him to avoid the death penalty.
Boyfriend Bludgeons Pregnant Girlfriend in Premeditated Murder
Fifteen-year-old Brittni Pater of Arkansas was 12 weeks pregnant when she left a note for her parents and climbed out her bedroom window to meet her boyfriend for what she believed was a trip to an abortion clinic. Matthew Ryan Elliot confessed to police that he instead drove Brittni to a deserted area and bludgeoned her to death with a metal pipe. He was sentenced to life in prison. Another teenage boy was convicted of helping to plan the murder, including digging a grave and buying plastic sheeting to wrap Brittni’s body.
Pregnant 14-Year-Old Stabbed in Abdomen, Neck, and Back; Believed to be Buried Alive
Chauntae Jones, 14, was seven months pregnant when she and her unborn child were murdered. Boston police said the baby’s father, Kyle Bryant, 21, and Lord Hampton, 24, blindfolded Chauntae, struck her over the head; stabbed her repeatedly in the neck, abdomen, and back, and then buried her in a shallow grave – probably while she was still alive. The two men were charged with double homicide.
Pregnant Teen Shot in Kentucky, Body Found in Park
The body of 18-year-old Ashley Lyons was found in her car at a park in Kentucky. Ashley, who was 22 weeks pregnant, had been shot and killed. Her family said that only hours before her death, they had watched an ultrasound video of Ashley’s unborn son. Her ex-boyfriend, Roger McBeath, was charged in her death.
Teen Strangled, Stoned, and Stabbed by Boyfriend Who Had Threatened to Kill Her if She Didn’t Abort
Sean Steele confessed to murdering his pregnant 15-year-old girlfriend, Barbara “Bobbie” Watkins, by strangling her, dropping a rock on her body, and stabbing her with a broken beer bottle. Family and friends testified that Steele had threatened to kill Bobbie and her baby if she didn’t abort.
Woman Refuses Abortion, Man Fulfills Threat and Kills Her with Pipe Bomb
Deana Mitts and her 7-year-old daughter, Kayla, were killed by a pipe bomb in their Pittsburgh home on New Year’s Day. Deana’s ex-boyfriend, Joseph Minerd, was sentenced to life in prison. Police said Minerd had threatened to kill Deana when she refused to have an abortion.
Oklahoma City Woman Beaten and Shot After Refusing Abortion
The body of 21-year-old Lorena Rivera was found in a shallow grave in Oklahoma City. Twenty-one weeks pregnant, she had been shot twice and beaten. Police said Nathaniel Smith murdered Lorena because she refused an abortion and he didn’t want to pay child support.
Pregnant Woman’s Body Found in Car Trunk, Husband Convicted
The body of Jennifer Peck, a Florida woman who was four months pregnant, was found in the trunk of a car in a strip-club parking lot. Joseph Peck, was convicted of killing his wife with a blow to the head, allegedly because she refused to have an abortion. According to court records, Jennifer told a counselor shortly before her death that Joseph was abusing her.
After Refusing Abortion, Woman Killed and Burned
Deborah Moody was killed in 1997 by her ex-boyfriend, Alfred E. Smith, who then put her body in her car and set it on fire. Prosecutors in Van Nuys, Louisiana said Smith killed Deborah for refusing to abort because of her religious beliefs. He was sentenced to life in prison.
Boyfriend Shoots Pregnant Woman in Abdomen; Kills Her and Unborn Son
In Toledo, Ohio, Sonya Hayes was shot in the abdomen, killing her and her unborn son. Her boyfriend, Terrance Davis, was sentenced to life in prison. A witness testified that Davis had threatened to kill Sonya’s unborn child, and Sonya’s mother, Renee Harris, said Davis asked Renee to talk Sonya into having an abortion.
Woman Pregnant with Twins Shot in Face and Back of Head
Zaneta Brown of New York was pregnant with twins when she was shot in the face and back of the head. Jerold L.Ponder, with whom Zaneta had been having an affair, and his wife, Keya, were charged in Zaneta’s murder. Keya Ponder was accused of buying the rifle used in the shooting and helping Jerold bury Zaneta’s body and dispose of her car. The Polanders were convicted of second degree murder and evidence tampering.
Pregnant Woman Hanged by Man Who Believed He Fathered Her Child
In Houston, Dan Leach confessed that he murdered a woman whose death had been ruled a suicide. Leach reported that he had killed her because he thought he was the father of her baby. He faces up to life in prison if convicted.
Virginia Man Detonates Bomb to Kill Pregnant Girlfriend and Unborn Child
Tammy L. Baker was eight months pregnant when she and her unborn child were killed by a bomb that was placed on her apartment steps in Virginia and detonated by a model rocket engine. Her ex-boyfriend, Coleman Johnson, Jr., was convicted and sentenced to life in prison for her death.
NFL Star Arranged Girlfriend’s Death to Avoid Child Support
In North Carolina, 24-year-old Cherica Adams died a month after being shot four times in the abdomen during a drive-by shooting arranged by her boyfriend, former NFL player Rae Carruth. Prosecutors said Carruth, who was sentenced to 18 years in prison, plotted Cherica’s death to avoid paying child support. Cherica’s unborn baby boy survived the attack.
Pregnant Woman Dies from Gunshot to Head, Newborn Son Dies Two Weeks Later
A Colorado woman, Leah Gee, died two days after her boyfriend, Daniel Self, shot her in the head. Doctors delivered her unborn son, who died two weeks later. Leah’s boyfriend, Daniel Self, was charged in Leah’s death, but not that of her son, even though experts testified that the baby’s fatal complications were a direct result of the shooting.
Missouri Man Stabs Woman to Death the Day Before Her Delivery Date
Steven McBride was sentenced to two life terms for stabbing 21-year-old Nekeesha Hendrick to death just a day before she was due to deliver. Her unborn baby girl, named Breena, died of blood loss.
Pregnant Woman Hit Over Head with Skillet, Shot in Head
In California, Elaine Bunyard was a week away from delivering her baby girl when she was murdered. Earlin Popham testified that Elaine’s husband, Jerry, offered him $1,000 to kill his wife. Popham testified that he broke an iron skillet on Elaine’s skull and then shot her in the head. Jerry Bunyard became the first person sentenced to death under California’s fetal homicide law, and Popham received 25 years to life in exchange for his testimony against Bunyard.
Utah Man Stabs Pregnant Girlfriend to Death
Irene Christansen was 16 to 18 weeks pregnant when she was stabbed to death and her body left near Utah’s Rockport Reservoir, where it was discovered by a snowmobiler 16 days later. Her boyfriend, Calvin Shane Meyers, was convicted of two counts of capital murder.
Pregnant Woman Murdered by Boyfriend Who “Didn’t Want the Child.”
In Colorado, Brenda Chavez was murdered by her boyfriend, Carlo Herrera. Herrera confessed that he beat Brenda to death and disposed of her body and vehicle by running it off a steep embankment into a grove of trees, where it was later found by three children. Herrera turned himself in and told the FBI that he killed Brenda because he didn’t want the child she was carrying.
Man Shoots Pregnant Girlfriend in the Head Because She Won’t Abort
Cincinnati woman Cassandra Betts was killed by her boyfriend, Tony Ringer, for refusing to have an abortion so he could marry another woman. Ringer shot Cassandra in the head as she sat in her car with her seven-year-old daughter, who was uninjured. Cassandra and her six-week-old unborn child died. Ringer pleaded guilty and was sentenced to two consecutive nine-year prison terms, plus three years for using a gun during the crime.
Pregnant Mother Tied Up and Stabbed to Death by Boyfriend
St. Louis woman Virginia Banks, 31, was two-and-a-half months pregnant when she was tied up and stabbed to death in front of her 5-year-old daughter. Virginia’s boyfriend, Willis Bailey, Jr., was sentenced to life in prison for killing her.
Ex-Husband Shoots Pregnant Wife Twice in Abdomen; Kills Mother and Child
Susan MacGuire was pregnant when she was shot to death at her job in Salt Lake City. Her ex-husband, Roger MacGuire, turned himself in for her death. According to testimony, MacGuire told a co-worker that morning that he was going to kill his wife. A judge ruled that MacGuire could be charged for two murders after prosecutors argued that the number of shots fired and their location – two struck Susan in the abdomen – showed his intent to kill both Susan and the baby.
Pregnant Woman Shot in Head After Requesting Child Support
Melinda Alma Gonzalez, a 20-year-old Arizona woman, was three months pregnant when she was killed with a gunshot wound to the head. Authorities arrested Raymond Carrasco Garcia, who was believed to be the father of Melinda’s unborn baby and also of her one-year-old son, Diego. Melinda’s family told police that Melinda had been trying to collect child support from Garcia.
Women Nearing Delivery Suffocated and Bludgeoned with Log
Beth Kennard, 22, of Bremard, WA, was close to delivery and had named her unborn child Alexis Ann when she was raped and tortured to death. Her ex-boyfriend, Brodie Eric Walradt, received a life sentence for her murder, which took place in the home of Beths parents. Police said that Walradt suffocated Beth and bludgeoned her with a log.
Abortionist Strangles Girlfriend After Learning of Her Pregnancy
In California, Deepti Gupta, a 33-year-old neonatologist and mother of two, was pregnant with her third child when she was strangled to death. Kevin Paul Anderson, an abortionist with whom Deepti had been having an affair, was convicted of second-degree murder. Prosecutors said that Deepti had informed Anderson she was pregnant by him the day before he killed her.
Pregnant Woman Stabbed Repeatedly in Abdomen, Strangled to Death
California woman Martha Isela Moreno was nearly seven months pregnant when she was stabbed repeatedly in the abdomen and strangled to death. Her boyfriend, Gilberto Cano, was charged with her murder. Prosecutors said the nature of the stab wounds indicated that Cano clearly intended to kill the unborn baby girl. Two witnesses testified that Cano told relatives on the night of Martha’s death that he had “injured” or “done something bad” to her.
Pregnant Ohio Woman Stabbed to Death and Dumped in Ditch
Jean K. Toles, a 28-year-old Ohio woman, was 10 weeks pregnant when she was stabbed to death. Her boyfriend, LaMarr Parr, was accused of killing her and dumping her body in a ditch, where it was found the next day by two bicyclists.
Man Charged in Stabbing Death of Pregnant Girlfriend
Wilson Campoverde was charged in the stabbing death of his 33-year-old pregnant girlfriend, Maria Caguana. Maria suffered a stab wound to her abdomen and bled to death from another stab wound in her throat. Campoverde was not charged in the unborn child’s death.
Pregnant Woman Killed in Front of Her Four-Year-Old Son
Nicole Blake of Milwaukee was eight months pregnant when she was shot in the head by her boyfriend, Quenton Quortez Thompson. Thompson was convicted of first-degree intentional homicide and first-degree intentional homicide of an unborn child under Wisconsin’s feticide law and sentenced to life in prison. Nicole’s four-year-old son witnessed the murder and identified Thompson as his mother’s killer.
Single Mother Shot to Death, Boyfriend Charged
Shameka Fludd, a single mother of two, was four to five months pregnant with her third child when she was shot in the head in her Baltimore-area apartment. Her boyfriend, Tjane Charmeise Marshall, was charged with first- and second degree murder in the deaths of Shameka and her unborn child. According to court documents, Marshall had said the baby would “ruin his life” and that “he was going to do something about it.”
Man Charged With Killing Pregnant Girlfriend, Stuffing Body in Trash Can That Washed Up in Field
Twenty-year-old April Renee Greer was just days away from delivering a child when she disappeared from her North Carolina home. Her dismembered body was later found in a duct-taped sealed trash can that washed up into a field from a nearby creek after a heavy rainstorm. April’s boyfriend, Jerry Lynn Stuart, was charged with first-degree murder for beating April to death.
Pregnant Woman Strangled; Boyfriend Didn’t Want to Pay Child Support
Eric Laquine Brown of Mississippi pleaded guilty to strangling his pregnant girlfriend, Shorlonda Moore, and leaving her body in a burned out car in Memphis. Brown was sentenced to life without parole in Shorlonda’s death and a concurrent 20 years for the child’s death. Prosecutors said he killed Shorlonda because he didn’t want to pay child support.
Man Shoots Wife in Head, Reportedly Because He Found Her Pregnancy Inconvenient
Carol DiMaiti Stuart of Boston and her unborn son, Christopher, died after Carol was shot in the head by her husband, Charles Stuart, who told police that the couple had been robbed. Charles Stuart later committed suicide after his brother told police that Charles had not wanted the pregnancy because it hindered his career plans, and that he planned Carol’s death in order to collect life insurance.
Pregnant Mother Murdered; Dies After Son Delivered
Deborah Denise Randall, a pregnant Virginia woman, was shot to death by her boyfriend, Richard Johnson. Only months earlier, Johnson had been convicted of three prior assaults on Deborah, but was freed after a judge decided to suspend his sentence. Doctors were able to deliver Deborah’s baby boy, Donnie, but Deborah died without regaining consciousness. Johnson was sentenced to life in prison for her death. Deborah’s son is being raised by his grandmother.
Connecticut Woman Killed Two Weeks Before Due Date
In Connecticut, Jenny McMechen, 24, was shot and killed outside a friend’s home on New Year’s Eve, just two weeks before her unborn son was due to be born. Her ex-boyfriend, Michael Latour, was charged in her death. Just a few months earlier, Jenny had told police she was afraid Latour would kill her. Jenny’s mother, Debbie Florence, waged a successful campaign to implement “Jenny’s Law,” which allows Connecticut prosecutors to bring charges when an attack on a pregnant woman results in the death of her unborn child.
Husband Charged with Strangling Pregnant Wife in Connecticut
Marya Ruiz, a 31-year-old Connecticut woman, was seven months pregnant when she was strangled. Her body was found on the floor of her home by a relative. Authorities charged Marya’s husband, Carlos Claudio, with her murder.
Man Murders Pregnant Wife; Not Charged in Nine-Month-Old Unborn Child’s Death
In Maine, Roscoe B. Sargent was convicted for murdering his pregnant wife, Heather Fligelman Sargent, whom he stabbed at least 47 times. Sargent was not charged in the death of Heather’s 9-month-old unborn son, Jonah.
Man Kills Pregnant Girlfriend, Buries Her Body in Woods
Raymond Gregg admitted to police that he killed his pregnant girlfriend, Angela Russell, and buried her body in the woods in Morristown, TN. Gregg pleaded guilty to second-degree murder and was sentenced to 25 years in prison without parole. Prosecutors were unable to charge him with the baby’s death because they could not prove the unborn child was viable as required by Tennessee law.
Man Throws Pregnant Ex-Girlfriend Off Bridge onto Interstate
Consuela Williams, known as “Candy,” was killed after her ex-boyfriend threw her off an overpass onto the interstate near Crown Point, Indiana. According to police, Ronnie Thomas beat Candy with a steering wheel security lock after learning she was pregnant by another man, then drove to the overpass, dragged her from the car, and threw her off the bridge into oncoming traffic. He pleaded guilty to murder.
Brooklyn Man Arrested for Strangling Pregnant Girlfriend After She Refused to Abort
The body of Sandra Bonaventure, a pregnant 20-year-old college junior, was found in Manhattan by a homeless man a few days after she disappeared. An autopsy showed that she had suffocated to death, probably from strangulation. Her boyfriend, Emmanuel Pierre, 26, was charged with Sandra’s death. Police said they believed Pierre killed Sandra because she refused to have an abortion. Sandra’s mother said that she had been planning to care for her grandchild while her daughter finished her education.
Police: Man Charged in Slaying of Pregnant Ex-Girlfriend Had Previously Forced Her to Abort
Tara Chambers was eight-and-a-half months pregnant when she was fatally shot in her North Carolina home. Doctors delivered her unborn daughter, T’Kayia, who died a month later. Tara’s ex-boyfriend, Tyrone Raynard Gladden, and two other men were charged in Tara’s death. According to police records, several people said that Gladden had tried to hire a hit man to kill Tara. One witness told police that Gladden had previously forced Tara to have three abortions and that he tried to get her to abort Ta’Kayia as well.
Pregnant Woman Shot to Death By Boyfriend; Baby Boy Dies After Delivery
Robert Darrell Johnson of Indianapolis was sentenced to two 55-year-prison terms for killing his girlfriend, Tamnika Powell, who was nine months pregnant. Prosecutors said that Johnson beat Tamnika, then shot her after she fell to the floor. Her unborn son died the next day after being delivered by caesarean.
For More Examples
These are only a sampling of the pressures faced by girls and women whose unplanned pregnancies inconvenience others. Refer to these web sites for current news, information and more examples of coerced abortion, and pregnancy- and abortion-related violence:
1. VM Rue et. al., “Induced abortion and traumatic stress: A preliminary comparison of American and Russian women, Medical Science Monitor 10(10): SR5-16 (2004).
2. See the www.unchoice.info for futher information and cases.
3. M Gissler et. al., “Pregnancy Associated Deaths in Finland 1987-1994 — definition problems and benefits of record linkage,” Acta Obsetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 76:651-657 (1997); and M. Gissler, “Injury deaths, suicides and homicides associated with pregnancy, Finland 1987-2000,” European J. Public Health 15(5):459-63 (2005).
4. Frederica Mathewes-Green, Real Choices (Ben Lomond, CA: Conciliar Press, 1997).
5. Mary K. Zimmerman, Passage Through Abortion (New York, Prager Publishers, 1977).
6. Arthur Shostak and Gary McLouth, Men and Abortion: Lessons, Losses, and Love (New York: Preager Publishers, 1984).
7. Brian McQuarrie, “Guard, clinic at odds at abortion hearing,” Boston Globe, April 16, 1999.
8. Carol Everett with Jack Shaw, Blood Money (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Books, 1992). See also Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warwick, “The Abortion Profiteers,” Chicago Sun Times special reprint, Dec. 3, 1978 (originally published Nov. 12, 1978), p. 2-3, 33.
9. Julie A. Gazmararian et al., “The Relationship Between Pregnancy Intendedness and Physical Violence in Mothers of Newborns,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, 85 :1031 (1995); Hortensia Amaro et al., “Violence During Pregnancy and Substance Use,” American Journal of Public Health, 80: 575 (1990); and J. McFarlane et al., “Abuse During Pregnancy and Femicide: Urgent Implications for Women’s Health,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, 100: 27, 27-36 (2002).
10. I.L. Horton and D. Cheng, “Enhanced Surveillance for Pregnancy-Associated Mortality-Maryland, 1993-1998,” JAMA 285(11): 1455-1459 (2001); see also J. Mcfarlane et. al., “Abuse During Pregnancy and Femicide: Urgent Implications for Women’s Health,” Obstetrics & Gynecology 100: 27-36 (2002).
11. “Is Your Mother’s Feminism Dead? New Agenda for Women Revealed in Landmark Two-Year Study,” press release from the Center for the Advancement of Women (www.advancewomen.org), June 24, 2003; and Steve Ertelt, “Pro-Abortion Poll Shows Majority of Women Are Pro-Life,” LifeNews.com (www.lifenews.com/nat13.html), June 25, 2003. 12. See Theresa Burke, Forbidden Grief: The Unspoken Pain of Abortion (Springfield, IL: Acorn Books, 2000) and www.unchoice.info.
13. “National Opinion Survey of 600 Adults Regarding Attitudes Toward a Pro-Woman/Pro-Life Agenda,” proprietary poll commissioned by the Elliot Institute, conducted in Dec. 2002.
14. D. Reardon, Abortion Malpractice (Denton, TX: Life Dynamics, 1993)
15. JR Cougle, DC Reardon & PK Coleman, “Depression Associated With Abortion and Childbirth: A Long-Term Analysis of the NLSY Cohort,” Medical Science Monitor 9(4):CR105-112, 2003.
16. Frank, et.al., “Induced Abortion Operations and Their Early Sequelae,” Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 35(73):175-180, April 1985; Grimes and Cates, “Abortion: Methods and Complications”, in Human Reproduction, 2nd ed., 796-813; M.A. Freedman, “Comparison of complication rates in first trimester abortions performed by physician assistants and physicians,” Am. J. Public Health 76(5):550-554, 1986).
17. M Gissler et. al., “Pregnancy Associated Deaths in Finland 1987-1994 — definition problems and benefits of record linkage,” Acta Obsetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 76:651-657, (1997). Another study found that, compared to women who gave birth, women who had abortions had a 62% higher risk of death from all causes for at least eight years after their pregnancies. DC Reardon et. al., “Deaths Associated With Pregnancy Outcome: A Record Linkage Study of Low Income Women,” Southern Medical Journal 95(8):834-41, (2002).
18. Elaine Hilberman and Kit Munson, “Sixty Battered Women,” Victimology, 2: 460-470 (1977-78).
19. “The Many Faces of Coercion,” The Post-Abortion Review, 8(1): 5-6 (Jan.-March 2000). See also R.M. Tolman, “Protecting the children of battered women,” J. Interpersonal Violence, 3(4): 476-483 (1988).
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