Studies show abortion pill carries 50 X the risk of childbirth

“Mifepristone abortion has 10 times more risk of death from infection than surgical abortion and 50 times more risk of death from infection compared to childbirth.”

McGregor J, FDA: Emerging Clostridial Disease Workshop, Transcript, May 11, 2006, Atlanta, GA. Available from: (accessed March 24, 2007).

Greene MF. Fatal infections associated with mife-ristone-induced abortion. N Engl J Med 2005:353(22):2317-8

Fischer M. Fatal toxic shock syndrome associated with Clostridium sordellii after medical abortion. N Engl J Med 2005:353:2352-60

Gary MM, Harrison DJ. Analysis of severe adverse events related to the use of mifepristone as an abortifacient. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2006;40(2):191-7 (published online Dec. 27, 2005) (

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Professor of Endocrinology gives warning about abortion and breast cancer

In a letter to David Kessler, M.D., Commissioner, Food and Drug Administration, January 27, 1993, Joel Brind PhD., Baruch College, Professor of Endocrinology wrote:

..This letter is to bring to your attention a serious public health hazard associated with use of RU-486 and other anti-progestational steroids as abortifacients, namely, a markedly increased risk of breast cancer. To the best of my knowledge this issue has not been raised in any government hearings….despite the fact that increased risk of breast cancer associated with abortion of first pregnancy is well established in the literature….

What is the magnitude of the breast cancer hazard inherent in abortion? A review of relevant literature… puts the relative risk of abortion of first pregnancy at between 1.5 – 2, over and above the increased risk resulting from delaying first full-term pregnancy by any means. (For multiple abortions relative risks estimates range as high as 4 or 5.)

Quoted in “ABORTION A Briefing Book For Canadian Legislators” Campaign Life Coalition NATIONAL PUBLIC AFFAIRS OFFICE July 2002

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Post-abortion women tell of complications from abortion

David Reardon wrote a book where he interviewed over 200 post-abortion women. He found that:

Of the 252 women surveyed, approximately one-half complained of suffering from at least one type of physical complication following their abortions. Moreover, at least 18 percent of those surveyed reported having suffered permanent physical damage traceable to the procedure…

Of the 47 percent who reported suffering from a complication, 40 percent said it was a very minor problem, 26 percent said it was moderately severe, and 35 percent claimed that it was very severe…

Of the short term complications, the most frequently identified was postoperative haemorrhage, noted by 15 percent of all women surveyed. Infection was the second most likely complication, reported by 9 percent of those surveyed…

Of the aborted women surveyed, approximately 6 percent were forced to undergo a total hysterectomy to remove a uterus that had been damaged or infected by the abortion procedure. Another 8 percent reported that postabortion infection had left them sterile by blocking their fallopian tubes or through some other means. Yet another 4 percent contracted cervical cancer, which they attribute to the abortion…

Besides suffering sterility from the above causes, many aborted women suffer a reduced ability to carry a later wanted pregnancy to term. Of the women surveyed, approximately 20 percent later suffered miscarriage of a In addition, no less than 8 percent were diagnosed as suffering from cervical incompetence after their abortions. Other birthing problems and reproductive damage were frequently reported.

David C. Reardon Aborted Women: Silent No More ( Loyola University Press, Chicago, 1987) 22-25

The women David Reardon interviewed were all women who regretted their abortions.

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After abortion, women are 85% more likely to have miscarriage

A study found women who had abortions had a higher rate of miscarriage, labor complications, and premature birth:

“Those who had one or more abortions were 85 percent more likely to have a miscarriage in a future pregnancy; were 32 percent more likely to give birth to an infant with low birthweight; were 67 percent more likely to have a premature birth; were 47 percent more likely to have labor complications; and were 83 percent more likely to experience complications in delivery.”

“A Prospective Study of the Effects of Induced Abortion on Subsequent Reproductive Function,” research contract No. N01-HD-6-2802, sponsored by the National Child Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

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Studies that link abortion to breast cancer

Here are a list of studies that show that abortion increases the risk of breast cancer. They are in chronological order:

Segi M, et al. An epidemiological study on cancer in Japan. GANN. 48 1957;1–63.

Watanabe H, et al. Epidemiology and clinical aspects of breast cancer. [in Japanese], Nippon Rinsho 26, no. 8. 1968;1843–1849.

Dvoyrin VV, et al. Role of women’s reproductive status in the development of breast cancer. Methods and Progress in Breast cancer Epidemiology Research Tallin 1978;53-63.

Pike MC, et al. Oral contraceptive use and early abortion as risk factors for breast cancer in young women. Br J Cancer 43, no. 1. 1981;72-6.

Nishhiyama, F. The epidemiology of breast cancer in Tokushima prefecture. Shikoku Ichi 1982; 38:333-43 (in Japanese).

Brinton LA, et al. Reproductive factors in the etiology of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 47, no. 6. 1983:757-762.

Le M-G, Bachelot A, et al. Oral contraceptive use and breast or cervical cancer: Preliminary results of a case-control study In: Wolff J-P, Scott JS, eds. Hormones and sexual factors in human cancer aetiology. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1984:139-47.

Hirohata T, et al. Occurrence of breast cancer in relation to diet and reproductive history: a case-control study in Fukuoka, Japan. Natl Cancer Inst Monographs 69 1985:187-90.

LaVecchia C, et al. General epidemiology of breast cancer in northern Italy. Intl J of Epidemiol. 1987;16 3:347-355.

Ewertz M, et al. Risk of breast cancer in relation to reproductive factors in Denmark. Br J Cancer 58, no. 1 1988:99-104.

Luporsi E. (1988), in Andrieu N, Duffy SW, Rohan TE, Le MG, Luporsi E, Gerber M, Renaud R, Zaridze DG, Lifanova Y, Day NE. Familial risk, abortion and their interactive effect on the risk of breast cancer—a combined analysis of six case-control studies. Br J Cancer 1995;72:744-751.

Zaridze DG. (1988) in Andrieu N, Duffy SW, Rohan TE, Le MG, Luporsi E, Gerber M, Renaud R, Zaridze DG, Lifanova Y, Day NE. Familial risk, abortion and their interactive effect on the risk of breast cancer—a combined analysis of six case-control studies. Br J Cancer 1995;72:744-751.

Rosenberg L, et al. Breast cancer in relation to the occurrence and the time of the induced and spontaneous abortion. Amer J Epidemiol 127, no. 5 1988:981-989.

Howe HL, et al. Early abortion and breast cancer risk among women under age 40. Intl J Epidemiol 18, no 2 1989:300-4.

Remennick L. Reproductive patterns in cancer incidence in women: A population based correlation study in the USSR. Intl J Epidemiol 1989 (18) 3:498-510.

Adami HO, et al. Absence of association between reproductive variables and the risk of breast cancer in young women in Sweden and Norway. Br J Cancer 62, no 1 1990:122–6.

Laing AE, et al. Breast cancer risk factors in African-American women: The Howard University tumor registry experience. J Natl Med Assoc 85 1993:931-939.

Andrieu N, Clavel F, Gairard B, Piana L, Bremond A, Lansac J, Flamant R, Renaud R. Familial risk of breast cancer and abortion. Cancer Detect Prevent 1994;18(1):51-55.

Daling JR, et al. Risk of breast cancer among young women: relationship to induced abortion. J Natl Cancer Inst 86, no. 21 1994;1584-92.

Laing AE, et al. Reproductive and lifestyle factors for breast cancer in African-American women. Gent Epidemiol 1994;11:A300.

White E, et al. Breast cancer among young US women in relation to oral contraceptive use. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:505-14.

Andrieu N, Duffy SW, Rohan TE, Le MG, Luporsi E, Gerber M, Renaud R, Zaridze DG, Lifanova Y, Day NE. Familial risk, abortion and their interactive effect on the risk of breast cancer—a combined analysis of six case-control studies. Br J Cancer 1995;72:744-751.

Bu L, et al. Risk of breast cancer associated with induced abortion in a population at low risk of breast cancer. Amer J Epidemiol 141 1995;S85.

Lipworth L, et al. Abortion and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Greece. Intl J Cancer 61, no. 2 1995;181-4.

Rookus MA, et al. Breast Cancer risk after an induced abortion, a Dutch case-control study. Amer J Epidemiol 1995;141:S54 (abstract 214).

Daling JR, Brinton LA, Voigt LF, et al. Risk of breast cancer among white women following induced abortion. Amer J Epidemiol 1996;144:373-380.

Newcomb PA, et al. Pregnancy termination in relation to risk of breast cancer. J Amer Med Assoc 275, no. 4 1996:283-287.

Rookus MA, van Leeuwan FE. Induced abortion and risk for breast cancer: reporting (recall) bias in a Dutch case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:1759-1764.

Talamini, R, et al. The role of reproductive and menstrual factors in cancer of the breast before and after menopause. European J Cancer 32, no. 2 1996:303-310.

Tavani A, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, Negri E, D’avanao B, Decarli A. Abortion and breast cancer risk. Intl J Cancer 1996;65:401-05.

Wu AH, et al. Menstrual and reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans. Br J Cancer 73, no. 5 1996:680-6.

Melbye M, et al. Induced abortion and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 336, no. 2. 1997:81-85.

Palmer J. Induced and spontaneous abortion in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 8, no. 6 1997:841-849.

Fioretti F. Risk factors for breast cancer in nulliparous women. Br J Cancer 1999 78 (11/12) 1923-1928.

Marcus, PM, et al. Adolescent reproductive events and subsequent breast cancer risk. Amer J Public Health 89, no. 8 1999:1244-1247.

Lazovich D, et al. Induced abortion and breast cancer risk.Epidemiol 11, no. 1 2000:76-80.

Robertson C, et al. The association between induced and spontaneous abortion and risk of breast cancer in Slovenian women aged 25-54. Breast 2001;10:291-298.

Sanderson M, et al. Abortion history and breast cancer risk: Results from the Shangai Breast Cancer Study. Intl J Cancer 96, no. 6 2001:899-905.

Ye Z, et al. Breast cancer in relation to induced abortions in a cohort of Chinese women. Br J Cancer 87, no. 9. 2002:976.

Becher H, Schmidt S, Chang-Claude J. Reproductive factors and familial predisposition for breast cancer by age 50 years. A Case control family study for assessing main effects and possible gene-environment interaction. Intl J Epidemiol 2003;32:38-50.

Mahue-Giangreco M, Ursin G, Sullivan-Halley J, Bernstein L. Induced abortion, miscarriage, and breast cancer risk of young women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers & Prev 2003;12:209-214.

Meeske K, et al. Impact of reproductive factors and lactation on breast carcinomas in situ. Intl J Cancer 2004 110:103-109.

Palmer JR, et al. A prospective study of induced abortion and breast cancer in African-American women. Cancer Causes & Control 15, no. 2 2004:105-11.

Rosenblatt K. Induced abortions and the risk of all cancers combined and site-specific cancers in Shanghai. Cancer Causes and Control 17, no. 10 2006:1275-1280.

Tehranian N, et al. The effect of abortion on the risk of breast cancer. Iranian study presented at a conference at McMaster University. Available at:

Naieni K, et al. Risk factors of breast cancer in north of Iran: a case-control in Mazandaran Province. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 8, no. 3 2007:395-8.

Henderson K. Incomplete pregnancy is not associated with breast cancer risk: the California Teachers Study. Contraception 77, no. 6 2008:391-396.

Lin, J et al. A case control study on risk factors of breast cancer among women in Cixi. Zhejiang Preventive Medicine, vol. 20, no. 6 June 2008:3-5.

Dolle J, et al. Risk Factors for Triple-negative breast cancer in women under the age of 45 years. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, no. 4 2009:1157–66.

Ozmen V, et al. Breast cancer risk factors in Turkish women–a University Hospital based nested case control study. World J Surgical Oncology 7, no. 37 2009.

Xing P, et al. A case–control study of reproductive factors associated with subtypes of breast cancer in Northeast China. Medical Oncology 2009

Khachatryan L, et al. Influence of diabetes mellitus type 2 and prolonged estrogen exposure on risk of breast cancer among women in Armenia. Health Care for Women Intl, no. 32 2011:953-971.

Jiang AR, et al. Abortions and breast cancer risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Jiangsu Province of China. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2012;13:33-35. Available at:

Jiang AR, et al. Abortions and breast cancer risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women in Jiangsu Province of China. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2012;13:33-35. Available at:

Yanhua, C, et al. Reproductive Variables and Risk of Breast Malignant and Benign Tumours in Yunnan Province, China. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2012;13, 2179-2184.

Kamath R, et al. A study on risk factors of breast cancer among patients attending the tertiary care hospital in Udupi district. Indian J Community Med 2013;38(2)95-99.

Jabeen S, et al. Breast cancer and some epidemiological risk factors: A hospital based study, J Dhaka Med Coll 2013;22(1)61-66.

Huang, Yubei, et. al. A meta-analysis of the association between induced abortion and breast cancer risk among Chinese females. Cancer Causes Control. Cancer Causes Control Accepted Nov 11, 2013.

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Researcher links abortion to breast cancer, says it’s an “avoidable risk”

After extensive research, Dr. Joel Brind, professor of endocrinology at City University of New York, concluded,

“The single most avoidable risk factor for breast cancer is induced abortion.”

Dr. Joel Brind, “Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis of the Abortion/Breast Cancer Link”;

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Physical Risks of Abortion

Pro-choice groups commonly maintain that abortion is a very safe medical procedure. While deaths from first-trimester abortions are relatively rare (though hardly non-existent) there are indeed serious complications that can be life-changing if not life-ending. Namely, an effect on future fertility. Please be made aware of the following statistics and studies:

Physical Risks: Life-Threatening Dangers of Abortion

Higher death risk, up to 7 times higher suicide
Compared to pregnant women who had their babies, pregnant women who aborted were …

** 3.5 times more likely to die in the following year
** 1.6 times more likely to die of natural causes
** 6-7 times more likely to die of suicide
** 14 times more likely to die from homicide
** 4 times more likely to die of injuries related to accidents(1)

Another study found that, compared to women who gave birth, women who had abortions had a 62% higher risk of death from all causes for at least eight years after their pregnancies. Deaths from suicides and accidents were most prominent, with deaths from suicides being 2.5 times higher.(2)

Causes of death within a week: The leading causes of abortion-related maternal deaths within a week of abortion are hemorrhage, infection, embolism, anesthesia complications, and undiagnosed ectopic pregnancies.(3)

Cancer. Significantly increased risk of breast cancer, cervical cancer, and lung cancer (probably due to heavier smoking patterns after abortion).(4)

Immediate complications. About 10% suffer immediate complications; one-fifth are life-threatening: (5)

** hemorrhage
** infection
** ripped or perforated uterus
** cervical injury
** embolism
** anesthesia complications
** convulsions
** chronic abdominal pain
** cervical injury
** endotoxic shock
** Rh sensitization

31% suffer health complications. A recent study published in a major medical journal found that 31% of American women surveyed who had undergone abortions had health complications.(6)

80%-180% increase in doctor visits. Based on health care sought before and after abortion. On average, there is an 80% increase in doctor visits and a 180% increase in doctor visits for psychosocial reasons after abortion.(7)

Self-destructive lifestyles, spiraling health problems. Increased risk of promiscuity, smoking, drug abuse, and eating disorders, which all put the woman at increased risk for other health problems.(8)

Infertility and life-threatening reproductive risks

Abortion can damage reproductive organs and cause long-term and sometimes permanent problems that can put future pregnancies at risk. Women who have abortions are more likely to experience ectopic pregnancies, infertility, hysterectomies, stillbirths, miscarriages, and premature births than women who have not had abortions.(9)

Teens Face Higher Risk, 10 Times More Likely to Attempt Suicide

Teens 10 times more likely to attempt suicide. Teenage girls are 10 times more likely to attempt suicide if they have had an abortion in the last 6 months than are teens who have not had an abortion.(10)

Reproductive damage and other complications. Compared to teens who give birth, teens who abort are generally at higher risk of immediate complications and long-term reproductive damage after abortion than are older women.(11)
Higher risk of PID, 2.5 times higher risk of endometritis (a major cause of maternal death in future pregnancies)

Teens are at higher risk for dangerous infections such as pelvic inflammatory disease and endometritis after abortion.
These infections increase their risk of infertility, hysterectomy, ectopic pregnancy, and other serious complications.(12)

Overview of reproductive complications and problems with subsequent deliveries

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Abortion puts women at risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a serious, life threatening disease and a major direct cause of infertility. PID also increases risk of ectopic pregnancies. Studies have found that approximately one-fourth of women who have a chlamydia infection at the time of their abortion and 5% of women who don’t have chlamydia will develop PID within four weeks after the abortion.(13)

Placenta Previa. After abortion, there is a seven- to 15-fold increase in placenta previa in subsequent pregnancies (a life-threatening condition for both the mother and her wanted pregnancy). Abnormal development of the placenta due to uterine damage increases the risk of birth defects, stillbirth, and excessive bleeding during labor.(14)

Ectopic Pregnancy. Post-abortive women have a significantly increased risk of subsequent ectopic pregnancies, (15) which are life threatening and may result in reduced fertility.

Endometritis, a Major Cause of Death. Abortion can result in endometritis, which can lead to hospitalization and infertility problems. It is a major cause of maternal death during pregnancy.(16)

Women who abort twice as likely to have pre-term or post-term deliveries.(17)

** Women who had one, two, or more previous induced abortions are, respectively, 1.89, 2.66, or 2.03 times more likely to have a subsequent pre-term delivery, compared to women who carry to term. Pre-term delivery increases the risk of neonatal death and handicaps. The average hospital charge from delivery to discharge for a premature birth is $58,000, compared to $4,300 for a full-term birth.

** Women who had one, two, or more induced abortions are, respectively, 1.89, 2.61, and 2.23 times more likely to have a post-term delivery (over 42 weeks).

Death or disability of newborns in later pregnancies. Cervical and uterine damage may increase the risk of premature delivery, complications of labor, and abnormal development of the placenta in later pregnancies.(16) These complications are the leading causes of disabilities among newborns.

Having read this article and looked at the Citations, what does Planned Parenthood say about abortion’s safety? Check out the Truth Aborted Section.


1. M Gissler et. al., “Pregnancy Associated Deaths in Finland 1987-1994 — definition problems and benefits of record linkage” Acta Obsetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 76:651-657, 1997; Mika Gissler, Elina Hemminki, Jouko Lonnqvist, “Suicides after pregnancy in Finland: 1987-94: register linkage study” British Medical Journal 313:1431-4, 1996; and M. Gissler, “Injury deaths, suicides and homicides associated with pregnancy, Finland 1987-2000,” European J. Public Health 15(5):459-63, 2005 .
2. DC Reardon et. al., “Deaths Associated With Pregnancy Outcome: A Record Linkage Study of Low Income Women,” Southern Medical Journal 95(8):834-41, Aug. 2002.
3. Kaunitz, “Causes of Maternal Mortality in the United States, Obstetrics and Gynecology 65(5), May 1985
4. H.L. Howe, et al., “Early Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Women Under Age 40,” International Journal of Epidemiology 18(2):300-304, 1989; L.I. Remennick, “Induced Abortion as A Cancer Risk Factor: A Review of Epidemiological Evidence,” Journal of Epidemiological Community Health 1990; M.C. Pike, “Oral Contraceptive Use and Early Abortion as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Young Women,” British Journal of Cancer 43:72, 1981; M-G, Le, et al., “Oral Contraceptive Use and Breast or Cervical Cancer: Preliminary Results of a French Case-Control Study, Hormones and Sexual Factors in Human Cancer Etiology ed. JP Wolff, et al., (New York, Excerpta Medica,1984) 139-147; F. Parazzini, et al., “Reproductive Factors and the Risk of Invasive and Intraepithelial Cervical Neoplasia,” British Journal of Cancer 59:805-809,1989; H.L. Stewart, et al., “Epidemiology of Cancers of the Uterine Cervix and Corpus, Breast and Ovary in Israel and New York City,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 37(1):1-96; I. Fujimoto, et al., “Epidemiologic Study of Carcinoma in Situ of the Cervix,” Journal of Reproductive Medicine 30(7):535, July 1985; N. Weiss, “Events of Reproductive Life and the Incidence of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer,” Am. J. of Epidemiology, 117(2):128-139, 1983; V. Beral, et al., “Does Pregnancy Protect Against Ovarian Cancer,” The Lancet 1083-7, May 20, 1978; C. LaVecchia, et al.,”Reproductive Factors and the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Women,” International Journal of Cancer 52:351, 1992.
5. Frank,, “Induced Abortion Operations and Their Early Sequelae,” Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 35(73):175-180, April 1985; Grimes and Cates, “Abortion: Methods and Complications”, in Human Reproduction, 2nd ed., 796-813; M.A. Freedman, “Comparison of complication rates in first trimester abortions performed by physician assistants and physicians,” Am. J. Public Health 76(5):550-554, 1986).
6. VM Rue et. al., “Induced abortion and traumatic stress: A preliminary comparison of American and Russian women” Medical Science Monitor 10(10): SR5-16, 2004.
7. P. Ney,, “The Effects of Pregnancy Loss on Women’s Health,” Soc. Sci. Med. 48(9):1193-1200, 1994; Badgley, Caron, & Powell, Report of the Committee on the Abortion Law (Ottawa: Supply and Services, 1997) 319-321.
8. T. Burke with D. Reardon, Forbidden Grief: The Unspoken Pain of Abortion (Springfield, IL: Acorn Books, 2002), see ch. 13 and 15.
9. Strahan, T. Detrimental Effects of Abortion: An Annotated Bibliography with Commentary (Springfield, IL: Acorn Books, 2002) 168-206.
10. B. Garfinkle, Stress, Depression and Suicide: A Study of Adolescents in Minnesota (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Extension Service, 1986).
11. Wadhera, “Legal Abortion Among Teens, 1974-1978”, Canadian Medical Association Journal 122:1386-1389,June 1980; 13. E. Belanger, et. al., “Pain of First Trimester Abortion: A Study of Psychosocial and Medical Predictors,” Pain, 36:339; G.M. Smith, et. al., “Pain of first-trimester abortion: Its quantification and relationships with other variables,” American Journal Obstetrics & Gynecology, 133:489, 1979; R.T. Burkman, et. al., “Morbidity Risk Among Young Adolescents Undergoing Elective Abortion,” Contraception, 30(2):99, 1984; and K.F. Schulz, et. al., and “Measures to Prevent Cervical Injury During Suction Curettage Abortion,” The Lancet, 1182-1184, May 28, 1993 .
12. Burkman, et al., “Morbidity Risk Among Young Adolescents Undergoing Elective Abortion” Contraception 30:99-105, 1984; R.T. Burkman, et. al., “Culture and treatment results in endometritis following elective abortion,” American J. Obstet. & Gynecol., 128:556, 1997; and D. Avonts and P. Piot, “Genital infections in women undergoing induced abortion,” European J. Obstet. & Gynecol. & Reproductive Biology, 20:53, 1985; W. Cates, Jr., “Teenagers and Sexual Risk-Taking: The Best of Times and the Worst of Times,” Journal of Adolescent Health, 12:84, 1991; and “Teenage Pregnancy: Overall Trends and State-by-State Information,” Report by the Alan Guttmmacher Institute, Washington, DC,
13. Radberg, et al., “Chlamydia Trachomatis in Relation to Infections Following First Trimester Abortions,” Acta Obstricia Gynoecological (Supp.93), 54:478, 1980; L. Westergaard, “Significance of Cervical Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection in Post-abortal Pelvic Inflammatory Disease,” Obstetrics and Gynecology 60(3):322-325, 1982; M. Chacko, et al., “Chlamydia Trachomatosis Infection in Sexually Active Adolescents: Prevalence and Risk Factors,” Pediatrics 73(6), 1984; M. Barbacci, et al., “Post-Abortal Endometritis and Isolation of Chlamydia Trachomatis,” Obstetrics and Gynecology 68(5):668-690, 1986; S. Duthrie, et al., “Morbidity After Termination of Pregnancy in First-Trimester,” Genitourinary Medicine 63(3):182-187, 1987.
14. Barrett, et al., “Induced Abortion: A Risk Factor for Placenta Previa”, American Journal of Ob&Gyn. 141:7, 1981.
15. Daling,, “Ectopic Pregnancy in Relation to Previous Induced Abortion”, J. American Medical Association 253(7):1005-1008, Feb. 15, 1985; Levin,, “Ectopic Pregnancy and Prior Induced Abortion”, American J. Public Health 72:253, 1982; C.S. Chung, “Induced Abortion and Ectopic Pregnancy in Subsequent Pregnancies,” American J. Epidemiology 115(6):879-887 (1982).
16. “Post-Abortal Endometritis and Isolation of Chlamydia Trachomatis,” Obstetrics and Gynecology 68(5):668- 690, 1986); P. Sykes, “Complications of termination of pregnancy: a retrospective study of admissions to Christchurch Women’s Hospital, 1989 and 1990,” New Zealand Medical Journal 106: 83-85, March 10, 1993; S Osser and K Persson, “Postabortal pelvic infection associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the influence of humoral immunity,” Am J Obstet Gynecol 150:699, 1984; B. Hamark and L Forssman, “Postabortal Endometritis in Chlamydia-Negative Women- Association with Preoperative Clinical Signs of Infection,” Gynecol Obstet Invest 31:102-105, 1991; and Strahan, Detrimental Effects of Abortion: An Annotated Bibliography With Commentary (Springfield, IL: Acorn Books, 2002) 169.
17. Zhou, Weijin, et. al., “Induced Abortion and Subsequent Pregnancy Duration,” Obstetrics & Gynecology 94(6):948-953, Dec. 1999.
18. Hogue, Cates and Tietze, “Impact of Vacuum Aspiration Abortion on Future Childbearing: A Review”, Family Planning Perspectives 15(3), May-June 1983.


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